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Rivers in Nepal

Nepal is the second richest country in the world possessing 2.27 percent of water resources. Himalaya is the main resource of receiving water which overflows from China border of Tibet to India border and moves to Indian sea.

No. of rivers: 6000(including rivulets)

The total length of these rivers: 45000km.

Volume of water: 200 billion cubic meters per annum

The main sources of the river of Nepal are Snow and Glacier, Rain, and springs.

Hydro-Electricity Generation

Theoretical potentiality: 83000mw

Economic potentiality: 42000mw

Present Production: 600mw

The rivers of Nepal are divided into three grades:

1: Rivers of the 1st Grade

Originating in and beyond Himalayan mountain range, The Saptakoshi River, Sapta Gandaki River, Karnali River, and Mahakali River falls in this group and constitute 82% of the total runoff Nepal.

2: The Rivers of the 2nd Grade

These rivers include all rivers such which have their source in some springs located in the Mahabharat Range. The Bagmati river, Kamala river, Kankai river, Trijuga river, Mechi river, Tinau river, Rapti River, Mohana river etc depends on rain and spring water.

3: The Rivers of 3rd Grade

These rivers occur mainly on the south of the Churia Ranges and are comparatively of lesser importance than previous ones.

Length of the Rivers

Humla Karnali: 507km, Mugu Karnali 384km, Trishuli 362km, Kaligandaki 316m, Sunkoshi 256m.

  • The Saptakoshi River has seven branches of rivers:

    Tamor, Arun, Dudhkoshi, Indrawati, Tamakoshi, Sunkoshi, and Linkhu ( Arun, Tamakoshi, and Sunkoshi are also called Antecedent river which is coming from the Tibet. The rivers are older than mountains such as Everest, Lhotse, and so on.

  • The Sptagandaki River has also seven branches of rivers.

Trishuli, Budhi Gandaki, Daraundi, Marsyangdi, Madi, Seti, and Kali Gandaki.( Budhi Gandaki was born in Tibet and Kali Gandaki was born in the last forbidden kingdom Mustang.


  • The Mahakali River has also some branches River.

Karnali, Humla Karnali, Mugu Karnali, Tila, Budhi Ganga, western Seti, Thulo Bheri, Sano Bheri etc.