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Geography of Nepal


 Nepal is located in South Asia and lies on the southern laps of the central, great range. Nepal is a landlocked country. Nepal lies between 26 22 North to 30 27, North, latitude and 80 4 East to 88 12 East Longitude. Nepal is quite small in terms of total area and population. It occupies only 0.03 percent of the total and surface of the world (i.e. 147181 Sq. Km.The world is about 5100 lakh sq. km. The length of Nepal from Mechi river in the east to the Mahakali river in the west is 885 sq km and average width is 193 km(wide varies from 145 km to 241 km.


 Nepal is located between two vast Asian countries i.e. China and India. China is 65 times and India is 22 times larger than Nepal. It is often referred as Yam between the two stones. Nepal China boundary is 1111 km and Nepal –India boundary is 1808 km.


Relief of Physical Features of Nepal

 Nepal is mountainous country. 76% land area is consist of High mountains hills, including valleys, Tars, basins, and low hills. 24% land area is consisting of Tarai and Inner Tarai.

On the basis of topographic altitudes, Nepal is divided into three major geographic regions:

  1. The Himalayan Region

Elevation: 3000m- 8848m above the sea level.

Length: 885km; Breath 24-50km

Area: 25% of whole Nepal

Snowline is found at an altitude of 5000m above sea level. World famous Himalaya ranges, peaks, glaciers etc are found over 5000m.

 Subdivisions of Himalayan Region:

A: The Greater Himalayas

 The Himalayas are 2400 kilometers in length and extend from the valley of the Indus to that of the Brahmaputra. The Himalayas of Nepal is the highest mountain range in the world and include the world’s highest and also beautiful peaks. The Kanchenjunga Himal, The Kumbha Karna Himal, The Mahalunguer Himal, The Rolwaling Himal, The jugal Himal, The Langtang Himal, The Ganesh Himal, The Annapurna Himal, The Kanjiroba Himal, The Saipal Himal, and The Byas Rishi Himal are located in the greater Himalayas.

B: The Border or Trans-Himalayas

It lies between Karnali River in the west and Trishuli River in the east along Nepal-China border. The height of this Border Himalayas is lesser than the Greater Himalayas. It is almost dry with some glaciers and screes. This is the cold mountain desert land of Nepal. Mustang,  Manang presents a typical desert landscape in the north of the Himalaya.

C: The Inner Himalaya or High mountain valleys or Bhot

The Inner Himalaya lies between the Border Himalaya in the north and the Greater Himalayan in the South. These elevated Bhot valleys of Tibetan landscape are surrounded by ice-clad high Himalaya where glaciers and moraines are extended up to the valley floors. This typical feature of the high Himalayan valley is (24oom-500m) above the sea level. This is the rain-shadow region of Nepal. This is also the driest as well as the low productive land of Nepal.  

2: The Hilly Region

 This region lies between the Himalaya region in the north and the Tarai region in the south.

 Elevation: 6oom-3000m above the sea level.

Length: 885km, wide 75-125km.

Area: Near about 50% of the land surface of Nepal.

   The subdivisions of the hilly region:

  1. The Midland: Kathmandu Valley (Elevation: 1350m) Area: 668 sq km. Pokhara valley (Elevation: 800m-900m) Area: 466 Sq Km.
  2. Tars :( Tableland): Suketar, Tumlingtar, Rumjatar, Salllyantar, Khairenitar, etc.
  3. Besi: Dhunibesi, Chutrabesi, Sherabesi etc.

3: The Tarai Region

This region lies in southern part of Nepal with a border of India. Tarai region is crossed by the big Himalayan Rivers such as Narayani, Karnali, and Koshi with coverage of Medium River of Mahabharat Range. This land is plainer which produce rice a lot. It covers 17% land of the total area of Nepal.


Elevation: 67m -300m

Length: 885 KM

         Climate: This region receives monsoon from the Bay of Bengal, with the big difference of climate in Summer & Winter.

Cities such as Bharatpur, Biratnagar, Janakpur, Nepalgunj, Butwal is located in this region. Most of the people who live in this region are Hindus where their culture, traditions, customs are similar to India. Though, there are also some Muslim people too.